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Monday, July 21, 2014

The Conjugate Vaccines



If certain bacterium had an external sugar molecule coating known as polysaccharides that outnumber harmful bacteria, researchers usually try of creating conjugate vaccine on this matter.

Polysaccharide coating usually disguise as bacterium antigens to unrecognized or prevent the response of immature immune systems to children and infants. This conjugate vaccine serves as special classification of what is known as subunit vaccine that able to provide solution on polysaccharide coating function.

In creating conjugate vaccine, scientists able to link the antigens or known as toxoids from a certain microbe that help immune systems of infants to recognize this polysaccharides. This linkage support immature immune systems to react with this polysaccharide coating and make sure to defend the body against from any bacterium or causing-disease.

Friday, July 18, 2014

Ebola Virus Isolating Lives

Spread of virus in the African countries has not only killed hundreds of lives, but has also brutally affected lives of the survivors.The virus that kills almost 90% of the people it affects is making really difficult for people to live a sound life after getting cured of it the reason being myths, lack of information and fear among the masses who have failed to understand the basic of the virus so far. Although international researchers and scientists have already been deployed in the affected the region, survival or people affected with the virus will also be needing psychological aid as misunderstanding about the virus and its consequence has to some extend left people alone. Many people affected with the virus has lost jobs and societal status only because of the virus. There is a need to support the survivors and help them in reliving their lives.      

Ebola Virus And It's Challenges

Ebola Virus a form of hemorrhagic fever whose symptoms are diarrhea, vomiting and bleeding has killed more than 600 people in Western Africa countries. Scientists and medical professionals from all over the world have failed to put a control on the wide-spread virus since its outbreak in February. The virus contagious in nature is getting really difficult to eliminate in the affected regions owing to factors such as lack of trust in medical science among people of the region and lack of information about the virus among people.
Ebola has spread through several West African countries, including Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea. The virus can be transmitted by touch and kills almost 90% of people it affects. 

Cardiac Arrest in Children

Cardiac arrest in children is typically caused by respiratory failure or circular shock or both. Arrest is also caused by coronary artery disease which is rare in children when compared to adults. Ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation accounts for around five to twenty percent cardiac arrests out-of-hospital and approximately around ten percent are in-hospital arrests. Not much is known about care for children but it is highly recommended that the parents or the guardians should take care of the critical elements which include managing body temperature, glucose, blood pressure, ventilation and cardiac output. Survival in cardiac arrest is higher in hospitals as hospitals have specialized paediatric staff. 

Tuesday, July 15, 2014

The Discovery Of Ovarian Cancer Treatment

Last Friday, the scientists in University of Arizona Cancer Center (St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Cancer of Phoenix, U.S.A.) found out a new treatment for patients suffering ovarian cancer. Based on sciencelive.com, the recent discovery support in developing the response rates of tumor shrinkage and prolonging the duration of cancer recurs.

Scientists refers their discovery as new and exciting journey to unravel the effectiveness in treating the recurrent ovarian cancer. To many, recurrent ovarian cancer is a deadly disease that needs appropriate and efficient treatment.

Based on the recent discovery, this breakthrough shows a trending development of survival. Though, the data gathered haven’t reached to maturity. Ovarian cancer appears when the formation of tumor takes place in single or both ovaries. Also, ovarian cancer usually term as silent killer because of the invisible symptoms and becomes visible when reaches on the advanced stage.

Sunday, July 13, 2014

Symptoms of Cardiac Arrest

It strikes suddenly and without any warning. In cardiac arrest there is a sudden loss of responsiveness. The individual will not respond when he is tapped on the shoulders. He does not do anything when asked if he is fine or not. There is no normal breathing when cardiac arrest takes place. The victim does not take normal breath when the head it tilted up. The person with victim should check this for at least five seconds. If the signs of cardiac arrest are present one should call 911 first. He should then immediately get an automated external defibrillator (AED) if it is available. He should also begin CPR immediately. He should continue to do this till the medical services arrive. Use AED as soon as it arrives. 

About Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac arrest is also known as the sudden cardiac arrest. It is an abrupt loss of heart function in a person who may or may not have been diagnosed with a heart disease. The time and the mode of death are unexpected as it occurs shortly after the symptoms appear. Cardiac arrest is caused when the heart’s electrical system malfunctions. In cardiac arrest death occurs when the heart suddenly stops working properly. The lower chambers of the heart suddenly start beating chaotically and stop pumping blood. Death occurs within minutes when the heart stops. Cardiac arrest may be reversed if CPR is performed and defibrillator is used to shock the heart and restore a normal heart rhythm within a few minutes.


Facts On Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is also known as manic depression. This mental illness is distinguished by severe swaying of mood, repeated period of depression, and somehow mania episode occur. Patients having this mental condition usually experience of being extremely irritated, happy, or sad.

Symptoms:


• Lack of self control
• Impatience
• Moody and irritable
• Highly involve in social activities but easily loss of pleasure to take part.
• Easily get distracted
• Poor judgment
• Sleepiness or oversleep
• Fatigue
• Feeling of hopelessness
• Always not in mood or being in the state of grief
• Lack of self confidence
• Difficulty in concentrating, making any decision
• Easily forget
• Eating problems (loss of appetite, overeating, easily loss or gain weight)
• High risk to commit suicide

Treatment:


• Mood stabilizers
• Antipsychotic drugs
• Sedative-hypnotics (benzodiazepines especially Klonopin or Ativan)
• Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
• Talk therapy – Having support group being with them

Wednesday, July 9, 2014

The Arthritis



Arthritis refers to the joint inflammation. Joint define as an area where the two bones meet along. Approximately, about 100 classification of arthritis are officially known.


Causes:

Arthritis mainly involve along the breakage of cartilage. Usually, cartilage is responsible in protecting the joint and for smooth movement. Cartilage is also responsible in shock absorption when pressure takes place into the joint such as walking. Insufficient amount of cartilage causes the bone to rub each other, swell, become stiff, and painful to bear. 

Joint inflammation is an outcome of the following:


·         Bacterial or virus infection

·         Broken bones

·         Autoimmune disease

·         General wear and tear of joints

Symptoms:


·         Warmth felt around the joint

·         Joint pain

·         Stiffness

·         Skin redness occur on the surrounding joint

·         Joint swelling

·         Ability of moving the joint is reduce

Treatment:


·         Exercise (endurance exercise, flexibility exercise, strength training)

·          Water therapy

·         Orthotics or splints for joint support

·         Apply heat or ice

·         Massage

·         Have plenty of sleep

·         Eat lots of fruits and vegetables

·         Apply capsaicin cream into the painful joints.

·         Lose weight especially when overweight

·         Eat foods those rich with omega-3 fatty acids

·         Try to do stress reducing activities (yoga, tai chi, or meditation)

·         Use over the medication that includes acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen, aspirin, or naproxen.

·         Intake of prescribe medication such as biologics, corticosteroids, the disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and immune-suppressants.  

·         Joint replacement

·         Arthroplasty for rebuilding the joints

Friday, July 4, 2014

Hypocalcaemia

Normal range of calcium in body is 9-10.5mg/dl. Any value less than this will cause hypocalcaemia.
The most common causes of hypocalcaemia in body are
·         Hypoalbuminemia
·         Alkalosis
·         Vitamin D deficiency
·         Chronic renal failure
·         Hypoparathyroidism
·         Acute pancreatitis
·         Malabsorption
·         Diuretics
Clinical Features:
A triad of following symptoms is typical of hypocalcaemia.
1.       Carpopedal spasm
2.       Stridor
3.       Fits
There may also occur papilloedema, ventricular arrhythmias
Management:
·         10-20ml 10% calcium gluconate I/V over 10-20 minutes
·         Cardiac monitoring is required

·         50mmol magnesium chloride I/V over 24 hours when there is associated hypomagnesiaemia